DISCLAIMER: This English version is translated from the original French. In case of any discrepancy, the French version shall prevail.
|Author(s):||Frarey and Dufell, 1964|
|Type area:||Schefferville area (NTS sheet 23J15)|
|Geological province:||Churchill Province|
|Geological subdivision:||New Quebec Orogen (Labrador Trough)|
Sedimentary and volcanic rocks
The name Kaniapiskau Supergroup was proposed by Frarey and Duffell (1964) to replace the name « Kaniapiskau System » used by Labrador Mining and Exploration Company geologists working in the southern Labrador Trough in 1949. The term Kaniapiskau, named after the Caniapiscau River, means « rocky point » according to Harrison (1952). The « Kaniapiskau System » included rocks from three « series »: the Hamilton River Series, the Ferriman Series and the Point Series. The use of the terms « system » and « series » was discontinued following the publication of the North American Stratigraphic Code in 1961 by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (MERQ, 1986). As defined by Frarey and Duffell (1964), the Kaniapiskau Supergroup consisted of two groups, the Knob Lake Group and the Doublet Group. The Knob Lake Group was divided by Dimroth (1970a, 1978) into the Seward Subgroup, the Pistolet Subgroup, the Swampy Bay Subgroup, the Attikamagen Subgroup and the Ferriman Subgroup. These subgroups were subsequently reclassified as groups by Clark and Wares (2004) and the name « Knob Lake Group » was abandoned. Clark and Wares (2004) also added the Koksoak (Wares and Goutier, 1990) and Le Moyne groups to the Kaniapiskau Supergroup in the northern part of the orogen. The Kaniapiskau Supergroup thus includes all Paleoproterozoic supracrustal rocks of the Labrador Trough (Frarey and Duffell, 1964; Baragar, 1967). However, only the upper part of the entire stratigraphic sequence is present in the northern part of the Trough, and the overly restrictive term « Kaniapiskau Group » was used in the early days of systematic mapping in this area (Fahrig, 1955; Roscoe, 1957; Sauvé and Bergeron, 1965). The Labrador Trough was divided by Clark and Wares (2004) into 11 lithotectonic zones, separated from each other by major thrust faults and consisting of characteristic parts of the Kaniapiskau Supergroup.
The Kaniapiskau Supergroup consists of three depositional cycles, two of which are volcano-sedimentary in nature and the third sedimentary. These thicken eastward and are separated from each other by erosional unconformities (Dimroth et al., 1970; Wardle and Bailey, 1981; Clark, 1988; Clark and Thorpe, 1990; Clark, 1994). Rocks of the Kaniapiskau Supergroup were deposited in a wide variety of environments including rifts, platforms, marine basins and fluvial environments (Dimroth, 1970a). In general, the Kaniapiskau Supergroup displays facies variations from north to south as well as transverse facies variations from west to east (Clark, 1994).
The first volcano-sedimentary cycle unconformably (angular unconformity) overlies the Superior Craton and begins with an immature continental rift sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and slightly alkaline volcanic rocks of the Seward Group (pPse). Deposition of the immature sequence was followed by deposition of sandstones and dolomites of the Pistolet Group (pPpi) in a passive continental margin marine shelf environment. Collapse and rifting of this platform led to the development of a marine basin in which basalts and flysch of the Swampy Bay Group (pPsw) were deposited (Clark and Wares, 2004). Towards the end of the first cycle, deposition of the Attikamagen Group (pPatt), consisting of a dolomitic reef complex, resulted from a marine regression and recovery of the platform (Hoffman and Grotzinger, 1989).
The second volcano-sedimentary cycle begins with the deposition of a transgressive sequence of platform sedimentary rocks and turbidites of the Ferriman Group (pPfe), which unconformably overlies the Archean basement and rocks of the first cycle (Dimroth, 1978). This sequence includes an economically important banded iron formation unit (Sokoman Formation). Alkaline volcanics (Nimish Volcanic Complex, formerly Numish Formation; Evans, 1978) and carbonatites and meimechites of the Castignon Volcanic Complex (pPcas) (Dimroth, 1969, 1970b; Dressler, 1979; Chevé, 1993) are contemporaneous with the Ferriman Group. In the south-central and southern parts of the Trough, this sequence correlates chronostratigraphically with volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Doublet (pPdt), Koksoak (pPks) and Le Moyne (pPlm) groups, which were deposited in a basin further east (Clark and Wares, 2004). Towards the end of the second cycle, progressive deepening of this basin was marked by the deposition of turbidites and, further east, distal basalts and flysch. Numerous mafic-ultramafic sills of tholeiitic affinity (Montagnais Supersuite, pPmon, formerly Montagnais Sills; Clark and Wares, 2004) cut rocks of the first and second cycles of the orogen. These are contemporaneous and comagmatic with volcanic rocks with which they are spatially associated (St. Seymour et al., 1991; Rohon et al., 1993; Skulski et al., 1993; Findlay et al., 1995). A major carbonatite intrusion, the Le Moyne Carbonatite Complex (Birkett and Clark, 1991), was emplaced at the top of the sequence towards the end of the second cycle.
The third sedimentary cycle unconformably overlies rocks of the second cycle and consists of syn-orogenic fluvial molasses of the Chioak Formation to the north and Tamarack River Formation to the south (Clark and Wares, 2004).
Thickness and distribution
The Kaniapiskau Supergroup is the stratigraphic unit that makes up the Labrador Trough and represents the western part of the New Quebec Orogen. It forms a narrow strip up to 160 km wide that extends for 850 km in a general NW-SE orientation from Hudson Strait in the north to the Grenville Front in the south (Clark, 1994). Its outcrop area is adjacent to the western limit of the Rachel-Laporte Lithotectonic Domain. The thickness of the sedimentary sequence in the western part of the Trough is 4000 to 20 000 m, and the thickness of the volcano-sedimentary pile in the eastern part is >6000 m (Wardle et al., 1990). First-cycle rocks are located mainly in the part of the orogen between latitude 57°30’N and the Grenville Front. However, the Denault Formation, part of the first cycle and creating the transition to the second cycle, has been identified as far north as Hopes Advance Bay (latitude 59°15’N). Second-cycle rocks are present along the entire length of the Trough, while third-cycle rocks locally occur in the northern and southern parts of the Trough (Clark, 1994; Clark and Wares, 2004).
The Paleoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequence of the Kaniapiskau Supergroup covers the entire Labrador Trough. It was deposited on the margin of the Archean Superior Craton between 2.2 and 1.87 Ga, before being folded, thrust and metamorphosed during the New Quebec Orogenesis (1.82-1.77 Ga) (Clark and Wares, 2004). The Kaniapiskau Supergroup unconformably overlies the Superior Craton to the west and is bounded to the east by dextral oblique thrust faults that separate it from the Laporte Supersuite (Clark and Wares, 2004; Simard et al., 2013; Lafrance et al., 2014). Locally, the Kaniapiskau Supergroup is in fault contact with various Archean structural complexes, such as the Boulder and Wheeler complexes (Dimroth, 1978; Simard et al., 2013). Volcano-sedimentary units of the Kaniapiskau Supergroup are intruded by mafic-ultramafic sills of the Montagnais Supersuite.
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Publications Available Through SIGÉOM Examine
CHEVÉ, S. 1993. CADRE GÉOLOGIQUE DU COMPLEXE CARBONATITIQUE DU LAC CASTIGNON, FOSSE DU LABRADOR. MINISTÈRE DE L’ÉNERGIE ET DES RESSOURCES, QUÉBEC; MB 93-64, 88 pages.
CLARK, T. 1988. STRATIGRAPHIE, PÉTROGRAPHIE ET PÉTROCHIMIE DE LA FORMATION DE FER DE BABY, RÉGION DU LAC HÉRODIER, FOSSE DU LABRADOR. MINISTÈRE DE L’ÉNERGIE ET DES RESSOURCES, QUÉBEC; ET 87-13, 42 pages.
CLARK, T. 1994. GÉOLOGIE ET GÎTES DE L’OROGÈNE DU NOUVEAU-QUÉBEC ET DE SON ARRIÈRE-PAYS. DANS : GÉOLOGIE DU QUÉBEC (M. HOCQ, COORDONNATEUR). MINISTÈRE DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES, QUÉBEC; MM 94-01, pages 47–65.
CLARK, T., WARES, R. 2004. SYNTHÈSE LITHOTECTONIQUE ET MÉTALLOGÉNIQUE DE L’OROGÈNE DU NOUVEAU-QUÉBEC (FOSSE DU LABRADOR). MINISTÈRE DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES, DE LA FAUNE ET DES PARCS, QUÉBEC; MM 2004-01, 182 pages, 1 plan.
DIMROTH, E. 1969. GÉOLOGIE DE LA RÉGION DU LAC CASTIGNON, TERRITOIRE DU NOUVEAU-QUÉBEC, QUÉBEC; RP 571, 62 pages.
DIMROTH, E. 1978. RÉGION DE LA FOSSE DU LABRADOR (54° 30′ – 56°30′). MINISTÈRE DES RICHESSES NATURELLES, QUÉBEC; RG 193, 396 pages, 16 plans.
DRESSLER, B. 1979. RÉGION DE LA FOSSE DU LABRADOR (56°30′ – 57°15′). MINISTÈRE DES RICHESSES NATURELLES, QUÉBEC; RG-195, 117 pages, 13 plans.
LAFRANCE, I., SIMARD, M., BANDYAYERA, D. 2014. GÉOLOGIE DE LA RÉGION DU LAC SAFFRAY (SNRC 24G-24F). MINISTÈRE DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES, QUÉBEC; RG 2014-02, 49 pages.
MERQ 1986. CODE STRATIGRAPHIQUE NORD-AMÉRICAIN. TRADUCTION DU « NORTH AMERICAN STRATIGRAPHIC CODE, BY THE NORTH AMERICAN COMMISSION ON STRATIGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE, A.A.P.G., 1983 ». MINISTÈRE DE L’ÉNERGIE ET DES RESSOURCES, QUÉBEC; DV 86-02, 74 pages.
SAUVÉ, P., BERGERON, R. 1965. RÉGION DES LACS GERIDO ET THÉVENET. MINISTÈRE DES RICHESSES NATURELLES, QUÉBEC; RG-104, 124 pages.
SIMARD, M., LAFRANCE, I., HAMMOUCHE, H., LEGOUIX, C. 2013. GÉOLOGIE DE LA RÉGION DE KUUJJUAQ ET DE LA BAIE D’UNGAVA (SNRC 24J ET 24K). MINISTÈRE DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES, QUÉBEC; RG 2013-04, 60 pages.
WARES, R., GOUTIER, J. 1990. SYNTHÈSE MÉTALLOGÉNIQUE DES INDICES DE SULFURES AU NORD DU 57° PARALLÈLE, FOSSE DU LABRADOR: ÉTAPE III. MINISTÈRE DE L’ÉNERGIE ET DES RESSOURCES DU QUÉBEC; MB 90-25, 96 pages.
BARAGAR, W.R.A. 1967. Wakuach Lake map-area, Quebec-Labrador (23 O). Geological Survey of Canada; Memoir 344, 174 pages. doi.org/10.4095/123960
BIRKETT, T.C., CLARK, T. 1991. Géologie et potentiel métallifère de la carbonatite protérozoïque du lac LeMoyne dans le nord du Québec. Geological Survey of Canada; Work in Progress Forum, Programme and Abstracts, page 20.
CLARK, T., THORPE, R.I. 1990. Model lead ages from the Labrador Trough and their stratigraphic implications. In: The Early Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America: Lithotectonic Correlations and Evolution (Lewry, J.F. and Stauffer, M.R., editors). Geological Association of Canada; Special Paper 37, pages 413-432.
DIMROTH, E. 1970a. Evolution of the Labrador Geosyncline. Geological Society of America Bulletin; volume 81, pages 2717-2742. doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1970)81[2717:EOTLG]2.0.CO;2
DIMROTH, E. 1970b. Meimechites and carbonatites of the Castignon Lake Complex, New Quebec. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen; Volume 112, pages 239-278.
DIMROTH, E., BARAGAR, W.R.A., BERGERON, R., JACKSON, G.D. 1970. The filling of the Circum-Ungava geosyncline. In: Symposium on Basins and Geosynclines of the Canadian Shield (Baer, A.J., editor). Geological Survey of Canada; Paper 70-40, pages 45-142. doi.org/10.4095/124922
EVANS, J.L. 1978. The geology and geochemistry of the Dyke Lake area (parts of 23J8, 9), Labrador. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Mineral Development Division; Report 78-4, 39 pages. gis.geosurv.gov.nl.ca/geofilePDFS/WBox040/023J_0058.pdf
FAHRIG, W.F. 1955. Lac Herodier map-area, New Quebec. Geological Survey of Canada; Paper 55-1, 15 pages. doi.org/10.4095/101302
FINDLAY, J.M., PARRISH, R.R., BIRKETT, T., WATANABE, D.H. 1995. U-Pb ages from the Nimish Formation and Montagnais glomeroporphyritic gabbro of the central New Québec Orogen, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences; Volume 32, pages 1208-1220. doi.org/10.1139/e95-099
FRAREY, M.J., DUFFEL, S. 1964. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature for the central part of the Labrador Trough. Geological Survey of Canada; Paper 64-25, 13 pages. doi.org/10.4095/123909
HARRISON, J.M. 1952. The Quebec-Labrador iron belt, Quebec and Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada; Paper 52-20, 21 pages. doi.org/10.4095/123923
HOFFMAN, P. 1989. Precambrian geology and tectonic history of North America. In: The Geology of North America – An Overview (A.W. Bally and A.R. Palmer, editors). Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America; Volume A, pages 447-512.
HOFFMAN, P. 1990. Dynamics of the tectonic assembly of northeast Laurentia in geon 18 (1.9-1.8 Ga). Geoscience Canada; Volume 17, pages 222–226.
HOFFMAN, P., GROTZINGER, J.P. 1989. Abner-Denault reef complex (2.1 Ga), Labrador Trough, N.E. Québec. In: Reefs, Canada and Adjacent Area (H.H.J. Geldsetzer, N.P. James, and GE. Tebbutt, editors). Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists; Memoir 13, pages 49-54.
ROHON, M.-L., VIALETTE, Y., CLARK, T., ROGER, G., OHNENSTETTER, D., VIDAL, P. 1993. Aphebian mafic-ultramafic magmatism in the Labrador Trough (New Quebec): its age and the nature of its mantle source. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences; Volume 30, pages 1582-1593. doi.org/10.1139/e93-136
ROSCOE, S.M. 1957. Cambrian Lake (east half), Quebec. Geological Survey of Canada; Paper 57-6, 16 pages. doi.org/10.4095/101318
SKULSKI, T., WARES, R.P., SMITH, A.D. 1993. Early Proterozoic (1.88-1.87) tholeiitic magmatism in the New Québec Orogen. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences; Volume 30, pages 1505-1520. doi.org/10.1139/e93-129
ST. SEYMOUR, K., KIDDIE, A., WARES, R. 1991. Basalts and gabbros of the Labrador Trough: remnants of a Proterozoic failed ocean? Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 1991; Hefte 6, pages 271-280.
WARDLE, R.J., BAILEY, D.G. 1981. Early Proterozoic sequences in Labrador. In: Proterozoic Basins in Canada (F.H.A. Campbell, editor). Geological Survey of Canada; Study 81-10, pages 331-358. doi.org/10.4095/124192
WARDLE, R.J., RYAN, B., NUNN, G.A.G, MENGEL, F.C. 1990. Labrador segment of the Trans-Hudson orogen: crustal development through oblique convergence and collision. In: The Early Proterozoic Trans-Hudson orogeny of North America (J.F. Lewry and M.R. Stauffer, editors). Geological Association of Canada; Special Paper 37, pages 353-369.
WARDLE, R.J., JAMES, D.T., SCOTT, D.J., HALL, J. 2002. The southeastern Churchill Province: synthesis of a Paleoproterozoic transpressional orogen. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences; Volume 9, pages 639-663. doi.org/10.1139/e02-004
Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources naturelles (MERN). Kaniapiskau Supergroup. Quebec Stratigraphic Lexicon. https://gq.mines.gouv.qc.ca/lexique-stratigraphique/province-de-churchill/supergroupe-de-kaniapiskau_en [accessed on Day Month Year].
Charles St-Hilaire, GIT, M.Sc. email@example.com (redaction)
Mehdi A. Guemache, P. Geo., Ph.D. (redaction and coordination); Thomas Clark, P. Geo., Ph.D. (critical review); Simon Auclair, P. Geo., M.Sc. (editing); Céline Dupuis, P. Geo., Ph.D. (English version); Ricardo Escobar Moran (HTML editing).