Quebec’s mineral products such as gold, iron, nickel, niobium, copper, zinc, titanium, salt, graphite, diamond, mica, feldspar, cut stone, building materials and peat contribute to Quebec’s economic growth. There are more than 200 active operating sites throughout the territory, including mines, quarries, sandpits and peatlands. About 20 of these extract metallic substances, some of which are world-class.
Amazonite is a variety of microcline, a mineral from the K-feldspar family. It is a green to bluish green ornamental and semi-precious stone.
Amphibolite is a dark-coloured, medium to fine-grained metamorphic rock composed mainly of amphibole and plagioclase. It is characteristic of moderate metamorphism.
Antimony is a grey metalloid. It occurs in nature in its native state or, more commonly, as sulphides.
Apatite forms a group of phosphate minerals. It is usually green, but this mineral can also take on a wide variety of colours.
Silver occurs in nature in its native state, disseminated or as wires and thin veneers with a generally dark-coloured altered surface. It also occurs as sulphides such as argentite or acanthite.
Clays consist of a group of minerals composed of hydrated aluminum silicates characterized by a flaky texture. They are usually formed by the alteration of silicates such as feldspars. This term also refers to the mineral substance formed primarily from these minerals.
Arsenic occurs in its native state or, more commonly, as iron, nickel or cobalt arsenides and sulfoarsenides. Arsenic is generally associated with antimony and precious metals such as gold and silver.
Barite, a barium sulfate, is a colourless, white or slightly tinted mineral due to the presence of iron oxides. It is characterized by high density.
Beryllium is a steel-grey, light and fragile alkaline earth metal. In nature, it occurs mainly as oxides or complex aluminosilicates such as beryl (emerald, aquamarine).
Biotite is a brownish iron-magnesium-potassium silicate belonging to the mica family.
Bismuth occurs in a variety of complex copper and lead sulphides. It occurs in hydrothermal veins, including in association with gold.
A block refers to a rock fragment >25.6 cm in diameter.
Brucite is a magnesium hydroxide. This soft and light mineral is commonly associated with serpentine in ultramafic rocks.
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mainly of calcite (calcium carbonate) characterized by high effervescence in contact with hydrochloric acid.
Chert is a very fine-grained silica-rich sedimentary rock of chemical origin.
Chromium is a fairly abundant transition metal in ultramafic magmatic rocks (dunite, serpentinite) where chromite contents are observed.
Chrysotile (Asbestos) (CS)
Chrysotile is a hydrated magnesium silicate. It is the main asbestos mineral. This fibrous, non-flammable, rot-proof and flexible mineral is resistant to most chemicals and has a high fracture stress.
Cobalt occurs as arsenides, sulfoarsenides, sulfides and oxides. The main cobalt minerals are smaltite and cobaltite.
Conglomerate is a detrital sedimentary rock composed of rock fragments (>2 mm) bound by a finer-grained matrix. It results from mechanical degradation of other rocks.
Hornfels is a metamorphic rock formed at the contact between intrusive magma and surrounding rocks.
Copper occurs in native form or more commonly as sulphides (chalcopyrite, bornite, covellite, etc.).
Diamond represents the high-pressure form of carbon. It is the hardest natural material (with a maximum index of 10 on the Mohs scale) and has a very high thermal and electrical conductivity. It occurs in trace amounts in kimberlites and lamproites.
Diatomite is a very light, porous and friable siliceous sedimentary rock formed almost entirely of skeletons of micro-organisms called diatoms.
Dolomite is a carbonate sedimentary rock composed of at least 50% dolomite (calcium-magnesium carbonate). It is characterized by low effervescence in contact with hydrochloric acid.
Dolomite is a calcium-magnesium carbonate. A rock containing >50% dolomite is called dolomite.
Platinum Group Elements (PGEs)
Platinum Group Elements (PGEs) include elements related to platinum (Pt) including palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), osmium (Os) and rhenium (Re). They are generally associated with magmatic copper-nickel or chromium mineralization.
Platinum (Pt) Palladium (Pd) Rhodium (Rh) Ruthenium (Ru) Iridium (Ir) Osmium (Os) Rhenium (Re)
Rare earth elements (REEs)
Rare earth elements are a group of metals comprising the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium. In elemental form, REEs have a metallic appearance and are fairly soft, malleable and ductile. Mineralization is associated with intrusive magmatic rocks (carbonatite, alkaline or hyperalkaline rocks), metasomatic rocks or placer deposits.
Cerium (Ce) Lanthanum (La) Neodymium (Nd) Praseodymium (Pr)Samarium (Sm) Europium Ytterbium